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Basic page: Mechanisms of ash (Fraxinus spp) resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmare)

Trees manifest two different types of defense against insects and pathogens: constitutive (pre-attack) and induced (post-attack). Constitutive defenses include the physical barrier represented by the outer bark and defensive proteins and secondary metabolites (mostly phenolics) toxic to the insect. Induced defenses include the formation of necrophylactic periderm and the induced accumulation of phenolics, lignin and defensive proteins.